A Note on Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia:
First, many schizophrenics have symptoms that are not alleviated by medication[R]. They are called "refractory"[R] schizophrenics. According to some research, the percentage is significant: "Between one-third and one-half of the individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia remain actively ill despite optimal pharmacological treatment."[R] Other research has reported that it is 10% to 30%. The large discrepancy is due to "definition" of alleviation of negative, positive, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia[R]. Some researchers consider a blunting of symptoms as effective pharmaceutical treatment.
[R] Caspi, Asaf MD; Davidson, Michael MD; Tamminga, Carol A. Treatment-refractory schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci.[online]. 2004. vol. 6(1). pp. 61-70. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181784/?tool=pubmed PMCID: PMC3181784
Note: There are two sets of references. Please use the first seen directly after the first video for the post. The second set of references are included with majority of my posts because I hope people find them informative and useful.
In response to: (A) Thompson, Peggy. Violence and Schizophrenia. Taming the criminal myths. mentalwellnesstoday.com[online]. 2012. Available from: [Article]
First, I would like to say that the above article is well written, includes many important facts, but, in my opinion, created sub-set "bias". I believe the author's premise is the following: medicated schizophrenics with social support are not violent but the heavily inferred result is that unmedicated schizophrenics are the cause for violence. Personally, I believe it is possible that the author's premise was derived from personal experience and marketing bias.
Although my post may appear otherwise, I have no intent to imply that the author, magazine, or website is purposefully engaging in marketing bias or endangerment. Rather, I, as a chemical engineer who worked in the pharmaceutical industry, know that corporations can, through monetary investment, bias an outcome and I supply a later link to verify the latter. Since I do not know for certain that the author, magazine, or website was biased by corporate influence, I make a claim based on my reading of the article and the Janssen icon on the lower right. As I read, I was overwhelmed by the suggestion that medicated schizophrenics are not violent while unmedicated cause all violence. Yes, I realize that logic dictates that "all" should be very rarely used. As I mentioned, facts were supplied to suggest other factors are important but I believe medication was heavily emphasized as the reason for "all" violence reduction.
Because of the latter derived article conclusion, I believe non-medicated schizophrenics may experience more stigma. As such, I argue that professional writers should reduce what I believe to be negative bias during their writing. With that said, I realize I can engage in negative bias as well. Therefore, I also argue that "comments" created from critical thinking, thinking that is biased but thinking where one honestly attempts to reduce negative bias, should be allowed to spark open debate about a topic in general but, at the same time, provide an intellectual "review" of data. Sadly, I have learned that many take such discussions personally, believe it to be bellicose, and refrain instead of replying. I do not know if that happened here, but I know it does occur. Therefore, I question the websites reason for not posting my comment.
I would like to congratulate the operators of Mental Wellness Today on creation of a "niche" and, in turn, probably increasing the quality of life for many. I have not read too many Mental Wellness Today articles because I have a tendency to utilize Open Access Databases for my research purposes. With that said, all should know that very "controlled" and peer-reviewed medical journal article can get the information wrong at times. As such, readers should read any article with a critical thought process. By the way, I realize that goes for my work as well. I can make mistakes as well; I am still learning as well. With today's Internet services, disinformation can be significant. In fact, medical sites are requiring peer review of their data as well. My current article discusses what I believe to be a subtle example of disinformation and I use medical journal articles and organizations, including government, to support my position. When reading, please remember that my main point is stigmatization as a result of inaccurate reporting and potentially biased emphasis. In other words, I do not believe adherence to medication necessarily leads to a sociologically accepted schizophrenic, and non-adherence to medication specifically leads to violence. Although I believed medicine "reduces" the possibility of violent acts (7), I do not believe medicine is needed to create a pacifist (1-7). I believe a contrasting suggestion creates schizophrenic social isolation and potentiate suicidal thought (B). Next, I will engage in bias and extract a few statements form the SZ article as examples and supply a few other quotes to immediately support the reasoning behind my main point. Following the SZ article extracted points, I supply the US National Institutes statement on schizophrenia and violence:
"British journalist Sathnam SangheraÃ…fs father and sister both have schizophrenia, so Sanghera knows from experience that as long as they take their medication, the mentally ill pose little risk to society." (A)
"Many of those who committed homicide, according to the Windsor Starâ€™s investigation, were defying court orders to take their medications, often under the belief that because their symptoms had subsided, they were cured. Typically, the assailant experienced a quick snap into psychoses, striking out as if in a trance. Many heard voices which cast their victims as NASA spies, satanic agents, or seven-foot monsters." (A)
US NIMH statement: "Are People with Schizophrenia violent?"
"People with schizophrenia are not usually violent. In fact, most violent crimes are not committed by people with schizophrenia. (3[SIR]) However, some symptoms are associated with violence, such as delusions of persecution. Substance abuse may also increase the chance a person will become violent. (4[SIR]) If a person with schizophrenia becomes violent, the violence is usually directed at family members and tends to take place at home."
"The risk of violence among people with schizophrenia is small. But people with the illness attempt suicide much more often than others. About 10 percent (especially young adult males) die by suicide. It is hard to predict which people with schizophrenia are prone to suicide. If you know someone who talks about or attempts suicide, help him or her find professional help right away. People with schizophrenia are not usually violent." (2)
Brown University: According to a document found on Brown University's server, the paranoid schizophrenic, during a psychotic episode that may resemble bipolar mania, is dangerous and "on guard". The "on guard" is key. The likelihood of a paranoid schizophrenic who is "agitated" engaging in a violent act is usually dependent upon being approached by a person who the paranoid schizophrenic believes is a danger. I assume the paranoid schizophrenic will project fear of endangerment to important people and items as well." (8)
Yes, medication adherence appears to reduce violence: Although there is no difference between second generation antipsychotics when compared to the first generation antipsychotic, adherence to medication appears to be beneficial in reducing violence. With that said, the authors stress the fact that "it is important to emphasize that the large majority of people with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts." (7)
Note: I would like to point out the "common" factor. Authors do not say that "all" non-medicated schizophrenics are violent. In addition, I do not believe the perpetuation of violence by unmedicated schizophrenics is an underlying theme. Rather, the authors have suggested that schizophrenics are, as a population, non violent. With that said, research has suggested that some schizophrenic violence can be quite severe when compared to other populations. As such, severely violent schizophrenics often make the news. Sadly, the latter creates a sub-set population statistical weighting factor that overwhelms the other sub-populations rational weighting factor. Because of such weighting, the entire population is skewed and stigma often occurs. With that said, I do not want to stigmatize the most violent either. After all, a violent schizophrenic is ill and the disease can affect a pacifist who may, if the psychotic episode is severe and other factors are present, act out violently as well. With that said, I have noticed that many individuals in society will bully a mentally ill person because they believe no one will believe the schizophrenic or other mentally ill person. In fact, there have been cases of severely mentally ill victims being raped because the perpetrator believed they could just say the mentally ill person is illogical and lying. In fact, a situation such as "gang stalking", which can actually exist with today's technology, might provoke a schizophrenic or any other person into a violent rage (13). With that said, I would like to provide one of my favorite quotes:
"Patients who have rare diseases are often abandoned by the medical community, Dr. Gahl said. "We don't know how to treat if we don't have a diagnosis. The way our society treats abandoned individuals is a measure of our society. It speaks to how our society treats the poorest among us."-Dr. William A. Gahl"
OK, A Light Hearted Intermission
Now that I said that, I would like to continue my response by including a fun and temporary divergence, which will be explained latter.
William Elliott Whitmore: Old Devils on Animals in the Dark
About: Pandora Internet Radio:Song Information
Marketing Bias and Pharmaceuticals
First, I feel I need to make a statement. I realize that the "schizophrenic population" will, like any population, have "individuals" that become violent and I said similar in my original comment submission. With that said, I now have more "insight", and, although my comment was denied, I must thank Mental Wellness Today for provoking me to gain insight! (3-7) Personally, I was hoping the comment discussion would do the same but in a shorter period!
When I initially discovered Mental Wellness Today, I, as a person who is a victim of the horrific mental illness called Schizoaffective Disorder with Bipolar I and Major Depressive Episodes along with a diagnosis of combat Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome, "PTSD", was ecstatic. After reading a SZ Magazine article on violence, society, and schizophrenics, "Violence and Schizophrenia" (A), I became slightly disenchanted and curious as to why the article was, in my opinion, one-sided towards adherence to pharmaceuticals called neuroleptics (A). My curiosity and experience caused me to look for bias and I believe I found it with respect to the sponsor, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Because of my literature research and experience as a victim of schizoaffective disorder, I discovered that I have a disagreement with Janssen Pharmaceutical's marketing methodology when considering neuroleptics. For this reason, I decided to "submit" a comment to Mental Wellness Today about my concern regarding potential marketing bias, its effect on the article "content", and how that may affect some schizophrenics. Why?
For a large number of schizophrenics, neuroleptic "risks" outweigh "benefits" so they refrain from taking medication (B, 7). If I am correct in my reading and evaluation, one study had 50% drop-out rate (7). Also, some schizophrenic's illness may not be alleviated by neuroleptics. As such, a schizophrenic can become desperate, depressed, and suicidal. Remember, schizophrenia is a very complicated disease process that appears to be dependent upon genetic and environmental factors.
In fact, current research suggests that currently known "probable" causative genetic variations, "rare copy number variants", account for 2-4% or less of all schizophrenic cases (9). With that said, progress is being made (10, 11).
Personally, I believe Mental Wellness Today, is creating a stigma towards schizophrenics that do not benefit from medication. Although I would say unknowingly, I believe the article creation was created by a person with rational, critical, thought. If the author has experience with schizophrenia, then per should know that many in the schizophrenic population have suicidal thoughts and do not benefit from medication (B). As such, most authors, in my opinion, should ethically consider their potential role of transitioning a schizophrenic from suicidal ideation to suicide (12). I believe the latter is especially true for a corporation that has financial means and research databases that allow such consideration (12). Sadly, corporations, I mention "corporations" on the assumption that Janssen sponsorship affected SZ authorship, are dichotic when respect to financial profits and patient safety. Still, a responsible corporation would not infer or imply that their pharmaceutical will help "all".
Now, you might think that I am "splitting hairs", but the situation can be quite severe. Why? Schizophrenics have very high suicide attempts and the highest "completion" rates (B). There are many "risk" factors but three are "insight", social isolation, and hopelessness, which can be very damaging (B). Although many schizophrenics are logical, they are misunderstood by society, which precipitates loneliness and, sadly, hopelessness. Although remissions occur, such remissions can provide "insight" and provoke suicide completion. Personally, I wonder about homeless schizophrenics and remission rate. Can you imagine a point free of delusion and hallucinations, purely logical thought process, and being homeless? Obviously, a disorganized or "simple" schizophrenic should not be ostracized either. In truth, research suggests that most readers do not know that many schizophrenics are homeless persons. Personally, I wonder if the average individual among the schizophrenic population knows if the simple and disorganized are often apart of the homeless population. In fact, I would like to research the statistical relationship between schizophrenic sub-types and homelessness. Societal misunderstanding, in my opinion: disinformation and lack of education, leads to severe social isolation. Many schizophrenics are completely isolated, which includes familial isolation. In fact, SAMHSA gives statistics regarding some isolation factors:
"Thirty-eight percent are unwilling to be friends with someone having mental health difficulties; sixty-four percent do not want someone who has schizophrenia as a close co-worker, and more than sixty-eight percent are unwilling to have someone with depression marry into their family (Pescosolido, et al., 1996)."-SAMHSA (1)
Sadly, neuroleptics might not alleviate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales, positive psychotic symptoms include: delusions, conceptual disorganization, hallucinations, excitement, grandiosity, suspicious/persecution, and hostility and negative psychotic symptoms include: blunted affect, emotional withdraw, poor rapport, passive/apathetic social withdraw, difficulty in abstract thinking, lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation and stereotyped thinking (4). Also, avolition or alogia may keep the schizophrenic from attending Psychotherapy or Cognitive Based Therapy, and negative associations by others could push per over the edge from suicidal ideation to suicide completion, which is quite high among schizophrenics anyhow (B, 2). Yes, it is that bad for some. To make matters worse, an "apparent" subset of their own " schizophrenic population", which is slightly more than 1% of the World's population, is writing articles that make those who cannot take medication look violent, which, in my opinion, increases stigma for a "sub-set" who are undeserving. Remember, medication does not work for all. In the future, I plan to write a post about suicide and I have read several journal articles on the subject. Yes, it is depressing but needs to be discussed. With that said, I would like to provide reference (B) for those who would like to read a medical journal article from World-wide experts regarding schizophrenic suicides. After reference (B), I provide my original submitted comment and then make a claim about possible corporate "bias". The "Old Devils" song is briefly used as well.
(B) Pompili, Maurizio et.al. Suicide risk in schizophrenia: learning from the past to change the future. Ann Gen Psychiatry[online]. 2007. vol. 6(10). Available from: [Article] PMCID: PMC1845151. doi: 10.1186/1744-859x-6-10. An example of a doi search in Google.
Note: When you search for "doi"(s) now, the first result is a calculator. As such, look at the next result since the "doi" is not meant to be an equation. It is a pretty cool representation though!
What a difficult subject to discuss. I will have to verify the Indiana statement. With that said, I would like to add the following.
I noticed that your website is sponsored by Janssen. I assume that is the pharmaceutical company that has combined with Johnson and Johnson. If true, I think it is great that Janssen has supported your "business", but I am saddened by their apparent unwillingness to recognize that medication does not work for many. They have a website, http://www.choicesinrecovery.com/, that immediately suggests mental health recovery is possible for all. I have no desire to be negative, but, as of yet, some people do not respond well to medication.
Your article portrays schizophrenics as dangerous if they do not take medication. This is stigmatizing a sub-set of the population. Did you know that some schizophrenic suicides may occur because the schiziophrenic was severely affected by the negative side effects of medication?
Yes, I am sure schizophrenics may, like any population, commit murder. According to the US National Institute of Mental Health, schizophrenics are, on average, non-violent but will, at times, be violent towards family. The latter should be known.
Sadly, we live in a society that wants to pass the buck. I hope Janssen Pharmaceutica is not attempting to use "successfly" medicated schizophrenics to alienate those who are not affected by medication. Also, I have read that neuroleptics are being discovered to have severe effects on patients in the long-term but I have not verified the latter, http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/dsm5/.
Let's not alienate "some"."
Is Mental Wellness Today a Front?
I even included my grammar errors! Anyhow, I don't expect to have all comments posted and the above was my first submission at Mental Wellness Today. With that said, I do not believe the article accurately represents the truth.
In contrast, I believe it is a possible "front" for a pharmaceutical company that is "using" the site for marketing. Why am I so critical? After all, even the CATIE study showed that adherence to medication reduced "violence" (7). Well, the article, in my opinion, strongly infers a non-mediated schizophrenic is dangerous. In truth, studies have not researched the latter. Wait, that is what the CATIE article discusses. No, the CATIE investigation compared first generation to second generation antipsychotics, and a first generation antipsychotic was determined to be more effective. In fact, the authors suggested a placebo study. With that said, they did say that naturalistic studies my provide some insight until a placebo/neuroleptic trial can be accomplished. Now, I have to admit that I, as a pharmaceutical chemical engineer who is also a whistleblower, may be a bit biased and "too judgmental", but I remind the reader that the Pharmaceutical Industry might be considered the most corrupt Industry since the USA's beginning. Don't believe me? Take some time to peruse the Non-Profit ProPublica Series called Dollars for Doctors and then listen to "Old Devels" song again! :) Now, I had faith that the operators of Mental Wellness Today were not consciously influenced but that changed once my comment, see above, was censored. Yes, they have a right to post and censor any comment they desire, but I believe the patients safety is the most important factor. Open discussion, in my opinion, increases intellectual discourse and benefits society on average.
A population should not be punished because of biased reporting that shifts stigma into another direction. As I mention, the US National Institute of Mental Health and other organizations have consistently tried to fight the violent schizophrenics stigma (1-7). With that said, schizophrenics are a sub-set of the general population and I know that some schizophrenics engage in violent acts (3-7). Still, the US NIMH does not specify a need to take medication to remain peaceful (2). As previously mentioned, one study suggested future research that is controlled, scientific, and one that utilizes a placebo. The latter may effectively determine the effectiveness of medication since the CATIE trial compared second-generation to the first generation perphenazine. Interestingly, perphenazine was more effective at reducing violence and the generic pharmaceutical did very well in the neurocognitive enhancement studies as well. Although not "statistically" significant when considering impact on neurocognition, perphenazine outperformed the newer neuroleptics: "Neurocognitive Effects of Antipsychotic Medications in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in the CATIE Trail", [Article].
Finally, I do believe medication benefits "society" but not necessarily the schizophrenic. In fact, neuroleptics have been discovered to be quite harmful to a population. As such, some schizophrenics are literally poisoning their bodies to "fit in" and benefit society at large. Yes, a sub-set of the schizophrenic population experience benefits that outweigh risks so their "quality of life" increases as well. On the other hand, a medicated, married or dating schizophrenic, which, lets be honest, has been reported as a small sub-set of the total population, might not have sexual functioning. For the male, the latter can be quite detrimental. When I state "lets be honest", I am discussing the average reporting that schizophrenics are quite lonely. Therefore, I ask the reader to ask if they would take "poison" for their neighborhoods benefit. If not affected by the horrible side effects, you probably would if it actually helped. Sadly, medication does not alleviate some schizophrenics symptoms.
According to research, some schizophrenics do not benefit from medication. In fact, the side effects of medicine can make some extremely suicidal and irritable while not helping the affected (B). As such, some schizophrenics decide to reduce dosage and deal with symptoms or just go off completely and rely upon psychotherapy and/or cognitive behavior therapy. Obviously, the latter does not benefit pharmaceutical companies and this magazine is sponsored by Janssen Pharmaceutical with an interest. Sadly, I honestly believe SZ Magazine and Mental Wellness Today is a front for Janssen advertising but I cannot definitively conclude the latter. As such, I expect the reader to draw their own conclusion. I say sadly because that would mean the magazine and website does not service all schizophrenics. Rather, it serves those that benefit from pharmaceuticals and may be biased towards Janssen Pharmaceuticals. If true, society should know because such a front, from a worse-case scenario, can have a detrimental effect on some schiphrenics/schizoaffectives. Yes, I think it is great that Janssen has supported a victim, CEO & Founder of Magazine, of this horrible condition. Also, I am thankful that the CEO may be benefiting from medicine. With that said, I believe the magazine is actually stigmatizing some schizophrenics/schizoaffectives while benefiting a Pharmaceutical company.
Society should know that a schizophrenic/schizoaffective person is not necessarily dangerous if they are unmedicated.
Posted on Facebook after I received a denial email:
I as a person who has been intimately affected by schizoaffective disorder, I have a question and I am not trying to be bellicose. Why would you deny the following comment on the following article?
See above for original comment, which was added as well.
A Thought Provoking Video
Now, please watch the following music video, consider the post that I have just written, and think of a metaphor and how it relates to you. Who is more dangerous? Those without schizophrenia or those with schizophrenia? When asking that question, I ask you to heavily consider a sub-population. What about "substance abuse" and its relation to violence among populations? When I make that comment, I am not trying to alienate "substance abusers". Rather, I have empathy for any suffering soul, believe society should be more understanding, believe individuals should think out of the box and step out of a potentially closed and perfectly smooth sphere with mirror properties, and take the time to educate themselves when possible. Since many have time constraints, I ask blog, magazine, and "Internet" professionals who summarize data to be as "blind" as possible to negative bias while using personal experience to compliment their scientifically supported writing on health. I also ask you to consider the following quote as well:
"People with psychiatric disabilities are far more likely to be victims than perpetrators of violent crime (Appleby, et al., 2001). Researchers at North Carolina State University and Duke University found that people with severe mental illnesses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychosis, are 2 ½ times more likely to be attacked, raped or mugged than the general population (Hiday, et al., 1999)."-SAMHSA (1)
Firewater: The Man On The Burning Tightrope on The Man On The Burning Tightrope.
(1) SAMHSA. SAMHSA'sa Resource Center to Promote Acceptance, Dignity and Social Inclusion Associated with Mental Illness (ADS Center). stopstigma.samhsa.gov.[online]. 2012. Available from: SAMHSA
- "Thirty-eight percent are unwilling to be friends with someone having mental health difficulties; sixty-four percent do not want someone who has schizophrenia as a close co-worker, and more than sixty-eight percent are unwilling to have someone with depression marry into their family (Pescosolido, et al., 1996)."
- "People with psychiatric disabilities are far more likely to be victims than perpetrators of violent crime (Appleby, et al., 2001). Researchers at North Carolina State University and Duke University found that people with severe mental illnesses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychosis, are 2 ½ times more likely to be attacked, raped or mugged than the general population (Hiday, et al., 1999)."
(2) National Institute of Mental Health. Schizophrenia. NIMH[online]. 2012. Available from: NIMH Schizophrenia
-"Are People with Schizophrenia violent?"
º "People with schizophrenia are not usually violent. In fact, most violent crimes are not committed by people with schizophrenia. (3[SIC]) However, some symptoms are associated with violence, such as delusions of persecution. Substance abuse may also increase the chance a person will become violent. (4[SIC]) If a person with schizophrenia becomes violent, the violence is usually directed at family members and tends to take place at home."
º "The risk of violence among people with schizophrenia is small. But people with the illness attempt suicide much more often than others. About 10 percent (especially young adult males) die by suicide. It is hard to predict which people with schizophrenia are prone to suicide. If you know someone who talks about or attempts suicide, help him or her find professional help right away. People with schizophrenia are not usually violent."
(3) Walsh, Elizabeth, MRCPsych; Buchanan, Alec MD; Fahy, Thomas MD. Violence and schizophrenia: examing the evidence. The British Journal of Psychiatry.[online].2002. vol. 190. pp. 490-495. Available from: Article doi: 10.1192/bjp.180.6.490
Results: "Most studies confirm the association between violence and schizophrenia. Recent good evidence supports a small but independent association. Comorbid substance abuse considerably increases this risk. The proportion of violent crime in society attributable to schizophrenia consistently falls below 10%."
Conclusions: "Less focus on the relative risk and more on the absolute risk of violence posed to society by people with schizophrenia would serve to reduce the associated stigma. Strategies aimed at reducing this small risk require further attention, in particular treatment for substance misuse."
Predictors of Violent Behavior in Schizophrenia
- "However, no sizeable body of evidence clearly indicates the relative strength of schizophrenia or mental illness in general as a risk factor for violence compared with other risk factors (Mulvey et al, 1994b)."
- "Two Factors appear to discriminate those with schizophrenia at increased risk of committing violent acts: comorbid substance abuse and acute psychotic symptoms."
- Risk of Violence in Society
º "In the ECA study in America, 2.7% of individuals who reported community violence over one year had schizophrenia."
º Relative risk versus Population-attributable risk, PAR: PAR% = ((Rate of violence in the total study population - rate of violence in the population by removing all those with schizophrenia)/(rate in the total population)) x 100
º In a Danish birth cohort that followed a population to 44 years, statistics drop from 2% of all males with lifetime arrests for violence and 9% of all females to 0.8% and 6%, respectfully, when the comorbid substance abuse population was excluded.
(4) Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Van Dorn RA, Elbogen E, Wager HR, Rosenheck RA, Stroup S, McEvoy JP, Lieberman JA. A national study of violent behavior in persons with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. May 2006 vol. 63(5). pp. 490-499. Available from: Article
"Main Outcome Measures: Violence was classified at 2 severity levels: minor violence, corresponding to simple assault without injury or weapon use; and serious violence, corresponding to assault resulting in injury or involving use of a lethal weapon, threat with a lethal weapon in hand, or sexual assault. A composite measure of any violence was also analyzed."
"Results: The 6-month prevalence of any violence was 19.1%, with 3.6% of participants reporting serious violent behavior. Distinct, but overlapping, sets of risk factors were associated with minor and serious violence. "Positive" psychotic symptoms, such as persecutory ideation, increased the risk of minor and serious violence, while "negative" psychotic symptoms, such as social withdrawal, lowered the risk of serious violence. Minor violence was associated with co-occurring substance abuse and interpersonal and social factors. Serious violence was associated with psychotic and depressive symptoms, childhood conduct problems, and victimization."
(5) Pulay, Attila J. MD; Dawson, Deborah A. PhD; Hasin, Deborah S. PhD; Goldstein, Rise B. PhD; Ruan, June W. MA; Pickering, Roger P. MS; Huang, Boji MD, PhD; Chou, Patricia S. PhD; Grant, Bridget PhD, PhD. Violent Behavior and DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J. Clinical Psychiatry.[online].Jan 2008. vol. 69(1). pp. 12-22. Available from: Article PMCID: PMC2922980 NIHMSID: NIHMS225216
Conclusion: "The majority of individuals with psychiatric disorders do not engage in violent behavior, and public perception associated with stereotypic violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders appears unwarranted. Elevated risks and burden of violent behavior were not equally shared across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders, with particular disorders, especially substance use disorders, contributing disproportionately to the burden. Future research should examine the circumstances under which violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders occurs with a view towards improving clinical prediction and developing more effective prevention strategies."
Table 2: Prevalence of Violent Behavior Before and Since Age 15 Among Individuals With Lifetime Pure and Comorbid DSM-iV Substance Use, Mood, Anxiety and Personality Disorders" Table 2.
- As we know, "substance abuse" usually affects any population negatively. The next article discusses the latter.
(6) Review: Fazel S; Gulati G; Linsell L; Geddes JR; Gran M. Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med.[online].Aug. 2009. vol. 6(8). Available from: Article PMCID: PMC2718581 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120
§ Great discussion of meta-anlysis stats: Stats
Conclusion: "Schizophrenia and other psychoses are associated with violence and violent offending, particularly homicide. However, most of the excess risk appears to be mediated by substance abuse comorbidity. The risk in these patients with comorbidity is similar to that for substance abuse without psychosis. Public health strategies for violence reduction could consider focusing on the primary and secondary prevention of substance abuse."
- "Finally, the increased risk of violence in schizophrenia and the psychoses comorbid with substance abuse was not different than the risk of violence in individuals with diagnoses of substance use disorders. In other words, schizophrenia and other psychoses did not appear to add any additional risk to that conferred by the substance abuse alone."
- "Third, we found no significant differences in risk estimates for a number of study design characteristics for which there has been uncertainty."
"Finally, the increased risk of violence in schizophrenia and the psychoses comorbid with substance abuse was not different than the risk of violence in individuals with diagnoses of substance use disorders. In other words, schizophrenia and other psychoses did not appear to add any additional risk to that conferred by the substance abuse alone."
- "Although the risk of any individual with schizophrenia committing homicide was very small at 0.3% and similar in magnitude to the risk in individuals with substance abuse (which was also 0.3%), it does indicate a particularly strong association of psychosis and homicide."
- "One notable finding was that, in all but three of the included studies, violence was assessed irrespective of the timing of the diagnosis of schizophrenia (i.e., violence before and after the diagnosis), which would overestimate the effects of the illness."
§ How was the person diagnosed? Many disorders have similar symptoms. It is possible that medical doctors were biased in applying the schizophrenic diagnosis because of stigmatization. With that said, the "first psychosis" can be quite overwhelming.
§ Since others can hallucinate, etc, I don't believe one can assume that medication is a factor.
- "There were three studies that used longitudinal designs (where violence was only included after diagnosis was established) ,,, which provided lower risk estimates."
§ Were all "off" medication. Remember, comorbid substance abuse plays a major role in violent acts in general.
- "The relationship with medication adherence may also mediate the association with violent outcomes, particularly if it precedes substance abuse on the causal pathway to violence. The data on medication adherence has reported associations with violence in naturalistic studies , but a recent analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials in Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial data for violent outcomes found no overall association with violence . Further research is necessary to clarify the relationship between substance abuse, medication adherence, and violence."
(7) Swanson, Jeffery W. PhD; Swartz, Marvin S. MD; Van Dorn, Richard A. PhD; Monahan, Joh PhD; Stroup, Scott T. MD, MPH; McEvoy, Joeseph P. MD, PhD; Wagner, Ryan, PhD; Elbogen, Eric B PhD; Liberman, Jeffery A. MD on Behalf of the CATIE Investigators. Comparison of antipsychotic medication effects on reducing violence in people with schizophrenia. Br. J Psychiatry.[online] July 2008. vol. 193(1). pp. 37-43. Available from: Article PMCID: PMC2801826 doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.042630
Discusion: "Effective antipsychotic medications are needed, along with psychosocial and supportive interventions to improve treatment adherence and social functioning, in order to effectively reduce violence risk in people with schizophrenia."
- Although there is no difference between second generation antipsychotics when compared to the first generation antipsychotic, adherence to medication appears to be beneficial in reducing violence. With that said, the authors stress the fact that "it is important to emphasize that the large majority of people with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts."
- Also, patient or advocate, lack of efficacy, problems with side effects, or another reason, which was ordered from greatest to least, caused a large majority of patients to discontinue treatment (50% of "intention-to-treat"), which may represent real world scenarios of people not adhering to medication because of pharmaceutical properties. Although the latter group appeared to engage in more violence, it cannot be used to accurately determine that non-medicated patients are actually more violent. Apparently, "participants with a baseline history of violence were more likely to discontinue their phase 1 medication and leave the study than those with no baseline history of violence."
- It should be known that minor and serious violence was combined for the meta-analysis because "serious violence was too low to support valid longitudinal and multivariable analyses,"
- Sadly, many cannot handle the side effects of the pharmaceuticals. Although medication reduces violence, the research continues to support that the amount of violence perpetrated by a schizophrenic is not severe. As previous studies have suggested, see above, substance abuse seems to be the most damaging factor.
§ Substance abuse drastically increases a schizophrenics likelihood of completing suicide as well (B). Furthermore, a schizophrenic will often become agitated, irritable, choose one rescuer for help, and withdraw before completing suicide.
(8) Brown University. Schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR #295.1-295.3, 295.90). brown.edu[online]. 2012. Available from: Article
- Under Differential Diagnosis and Bipolar Manic Episode Discussion: "Finally, the irritable manic is â€œon the attack,â€ whereas the agitated patient with paranoid schizophrenia is â€œon guard.â€ Both are dangerous, the manic recklessly so, the schizophrenic only if approached in what appears to the patient to be a hostile manner."
(9) Karayiorgou, Maria et al. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia. Nature[online]. February 2011. vol. 471. pp. 499-503. Available from: Article
Abstract Extraction: "Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood."
(10) Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. New Discovery On Link Between Early Life Stress and Genetic Susceptibility in Schizophrenia. bbrfoundation.org[online]. March 29, 2012. Available from: Article
(11) Schizophrenia Research Forum. A Catalyst for Creative Thinking. schizophreniaforum.org. 2012. Available from: Article
(12) Smith, April R. M.S.; Witte, Tracy K., M.S; Teale, Nadia E., M.S.; King, Sarah L., J.D., Bender, Ted W., M.S.; Joiner, Thomas E., PhD; Revisiting Impulsivity in Suicide, Implications for Civil Liability of Third Parties. Behav Sci Law[online]. 2008. vol. 26(6). Available from: Article PMCID: PMC2597102 NIHMSID: NIHMS69077 doi: 10.1002/bsl.848
(13) GSwatchdog. Gang Stalking, "Bulling on Steroids." AKA Organized Stalking, Vigilante Stalking, Cause Stalking." Youtube. 2011. Available from: Article
In addition to My Gather Network: Quidnunc Simcha, I am a Guest-Editor and "Conversation Starter" at Conversations for a Better World, Chris Harding, which is a shared blog on population, gender and health, and provided by United Nations Population Fund Website.
Conversations for a Better World
You should consider contribution to Conversations for a Better World as well! The more diverse the discussions the better the results in most instances. Although time to a solution will increase significantly, the final result is usually better for humanity.
A Needed Discussion!
You are NOT ALONE!
With that said, I would like to add the following links to all of my posts. I hope others will copy and paste the same into their posts as well. The best way to end corruption is to discuss corruption. At the root of most criminal enterprises are corrupt police, citizens, and politicians. The latter are grandmas, grandpas, fathers, mothers, police, church deacons, etc. Be warned, the corrupt people in your environment could begin harassing you.
Some Information and Brief References about Whistleblowers:
â€¢ Wikileaks and "What is a Whistleblower?"
Much of the "legal" debate about "whistleblower laws", which includes lobbyist, is the balance between organizational leadership responsibility, who should receive the first report, and the role of a whistleblower. As Mr. Gayl, who is a whistleblower that saved soldier's lives, mentions, GAP is an "outsider", and he shows frustration with his "organizations" ability to handle the complaint effectively. In some instances, a whistleblower may be "blowing the whistle" for unethical reasons. If their "complaint", after proper investigation, is deemed inappropriate, the organization should have an authority to "reprimand" or "retaliate" against the employee. Sadly, many organizations and criminals take advantage of big hearts, balanced people, and ethical beliefs. We see this in regular crime, which includes corporate crime as well. On many occasions, corporations work to create "loopholes" that make a law ineffective. Many people have died because of corporate irresponsibility. Although I am an advocate for corporations, I believe in ethical processes.
I love my country, but we have a problem. Spoiled Americans will kill for sport and bullying is an example. Another term for bullying is "gang stalking", which may be more appropriate, but the legal term may be the defined term of "bullying". Some corporate employees and "friends of organizations" use harassment, "bullying or stalking", and believe it is not that bad, but, in truth, it is considered emotional torture-adults and children should refrain. If an adult "bullies", a child will follow their example.
1. United States Department of Justice. Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of the Public Integrity Section for 2009. Office of Public Integrity [online]. 2009. Available from: Report.
2. Harding, Chris. Please take about 30 seconds and sign this petition for Mr. Gayl, a man who saved our troops! Gather[online]. 2010. Available from: Chris Harding's Gather Network.
3. Marshall, Clinard B.; Yeager, Peter C. Corporate Crime. Transaction Publishers[online]. 2006. Available from: Google Books. ISBN: 1-4128-0493-0.
4. Kesselheim, Aaron S., MD, JD, MPH; Studdert, David M., LL.B., Sc.D., MPH; Mello, Michelle M., JD, PhD, M.Phil. Whistle-Blowers' Experiences in Fraud Litigation against Pharmaceutical Companies. The New England Journal of Medicine[online]. 2010. vol. 362, pp. 1832-1839. Available from: New England Journal of Medicine: Article.
5. Harding, Chris. Should an honest whistleblower be forced homeless? Many, including pharmaceutical whistleblowers, are forced homeless. Gather[online]. 2010. Available from: Chris Harding's Gather Network.
Government, Whistleblowing, and the Law
6. Elsea, Jennifer K., Legislative Attorney. Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information. US State Department[online]. 2010. Available from: Document.
Additional Information and References:
As many know, a Multi-national Study by World Health Organization (1) reports that abused women and men believe "emotional abuse" is worse than physical abuse because it causes life-long psychological trauma and is virtually impossible to prove. The inability to "prove" is why many "pillars" will engage. In fact, corrupt societies are breeding grounds for such activity.
STOP SEX Trafficking! and Meth!
Support Senator Ron Wyden in his fight against sex-trafficking. Although the Pacific Northwest is the worse US location, it is an American problem and probably associated with the Meth network. Tell me corrupt police do not know about this activity.
United States Department of Justice. Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of the Public Integrity Section for 2009. Office of Public Integrity [online]. 2009. Available from: Report.
Buscaglia, Edgardo, & van Dijk, Jan. (2005). UC Berkley: Berkley Program in Law and Economics. Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. University of California eScholarship[online]. Jan 2005. Available from: eScholarship. University of California About the New eScholarship.
Schwartz, Susan P. State of Oregon Criminal Justice Commission. Lane County Criminal Justice Report. Oregon.gov[online]. May 2009. Available from: Report. Oregon Criminal Justice Commission.
Long, Billy; Yerington, Courtney. Police Administrators in Indiana: A Descriptive Study of Attitudes, Perceptions, and Stressors. Internet Journal of Criminology[online]. 2006. Available from: Internet Journal of Criminology: Article.
Bullying, Harassment, and Gang Stalking Resources
Bochenek, Michael; Brown, Widney, A.; Breen, Melanie; Campbell, Rook; David, Sam; Henkle, Derek R.; Jesrani, Tejal; Lnzertti,Rachel; McArthur, Kerry; Rozario, Shalu; Zea, Sadie. Hatred in the Hallways, Violence and Discrmination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bsexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools. Human Rights Watch [online].2001. Available from: HRW, Article Database.
Can sarcasm be a form of bullying? These documents say yes if sarcasm is included in a certain contextual relationship to other activity.
Cook, Dane. bullying. Dane Cook's Youtube Channel. 2010. Available from: Youtube
National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. Are you in a crisis? Please call 1-800-273-8255 (TALK). Suicide Prevention.
Suicide Awareness Voices Education. SAVE "Doctors, Firefighters and Others SAVE Lives, You Can Too!"
The Trevor Project is a great example of "realizing" the need to remind ourselves of the beauty around us! The World is beautiful! That blade of grass is amazing! The butterfly is magical! If needed, take a walk! If you cannot walk, visit Trevor! In my experiences, Pandora Internet Radio is a life savior as well.
â€¢ "For too long, LGBT youth have been forced to struggle through their formative years suffering from bullies in their schools, churches and homes â€” and with no support system to provide them any help."
â€¢ "Justin Aeberg. Billy Lucas. Cody Barker. Asher Brown. Seth Walsh. Raymond Chase. Tyler Clementi. All the names of American teenagers who in recent months have taken their own lives after being bullied in school."
â€œAs a nation weâ€™re founded on the belief that all of us are equal and each of us deserves the freedom to pursue our own version of happiness; to make the most of our talents; to speak our minds; to not fit in; most of all, to be true to ourselves. Thatâ€™s the freedom that enriches all of us. Thatâ€™s what America is all about. And every day, it gets better.â€
â€“ President Obama in a video message for the nationwide campaign focused on young people who are being bullied because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation. Video Resources: http://wh.gov/3nn.
Department of Defense. Restoring Hope, You Can Help Save A Life. Restoring Hope. "More Focus Needed to End Suicides", Mullens.
Wise, Terry L. Waking Up: Climbing Through the Darkness. Available from: Amazon.
Wise, Terry. terrywise.com. A National Mental Health Award Winner. Available from: Terry Wise.
Harding, Chris. Suicide: What is your keyword? Gather.com [online]. Available from: Chris Harding's Gather Network.
Dumais, A., B.Sc.; Lesage, A.D., M.D, M.Phil.; Alda, M., M.D; Rouleau, G., M.D., PhD; Dumont, M., R.N.; Chawky, N., M.Ps.; Roy, M., M.D; Mann, J.J., M.D; Benekelfat, C. M.D; Turecki, Gustavo, Turecki, M.D., PhD. Risk Factors for Suicide Completion in Major Depression: A Case-Control Study of Impulsive and Aggressive Behaviors in Men. The American Journal of Psychiatry [online]. 2005, vol.162(11) pp. 2116-2124. Avialable from: Am. J Psychiatry. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.11.2116.
Goldsmith, SK; Pellmar, TC; Kleinman, AM; Bunney, WE; Editors. Committeee on Pathophysiology and Prevention of Adolescent and Adult Suicide Reducing Suicide, A National Imperative. National Academies Press[online]. 2002. pp. xvi, 512. Available from: National Academies Press. ISBN-10: 0-309-08321-4. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-08321-8.
World Health Organization, Department of Gender and Women's Health. WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women: summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses.(Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and United Republic of Tanzania). WHOLIS. 2005. Available from: WHOLIS. ISBN: 9241593512.
Rape and Sexual Assault: Rape and sexual assault,WHO 1997
Wong Fo Lo, Sylvie; Wester, Fred; Mol, Saskia; Romkens, Renee; Hezemans, Door; Lagro-Janssen, Toine. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation. Patient Educ and Couns. 2008, vol.70(3), pp.386-394. Available from: Author's personal copy ISSN 0738-3991
Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Report on Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS. PEPFAR[online].2006. pp.16. Available from: PEPFAR: Reports. PEPFAR Reports: Report on Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS PDF.
Harassment and Bullying (i.e "emotional abuse") can lead to:
National Institute of Health.NIMH. The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America. 2010. Available from: Article.
Why engage in activity that can increase the numbers? By the way, the numbers cause increased "disability" claims in the USA and Canada. Does the average individual in society truly want the human race to environmentally evolve to "the greatest emotional abuser" wins the prize? As we know, women have a tendency to lust after the "bad boy" mentality, but most don't want to marry the "bad boy".
1. World Health Organization, Department of Gender and Women's Health. WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women: summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses.(Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and United Republic of Tanzania). WHOLIS. 2005, pp.viii, 28 p. Available from: WHOLIS. ISBN: 9241593512.
2. Moran, Jack. Beating victims seek witnesses. Registerguard [online]. 2010. Available from: Eugene Couple Beaten.
3. Hannah-Jones, Nikole. The Oregonian. Human trafficking industry thrives in Portland metro area. OregonLive [online]. Available from: Article.
4. Polaris Project Action Center. Human Trafficking 101. Polaris Project [online]. 2010. Available from: Action Center.
5. Greene, Jody M., MS; Ennett, Susan T., PhD; Ringwalt, Christopher L., DrPH. Briefs: Prevalence and Correlates of Survival Sex Among Runaway and Homeless Youth. American Journal of Public Health [online]. 1999. vol. 89(9). Available from: Article.
6. Senator Lugar. 111th Congress, S.RES 72. Expressing the sense of the Senate regarding drug trafficking in Mexico. US Congress. . Available from: Library of Congress, Article
7. Senator Wyden. 111th Congress. S. 2925. Trafficking Deterence and Victims Support Act of 2009. US Congress. Available from: Library of Congress, LOC.
8. Buscaglia, Edgardo, & van Dijk, Jan. (2005). UC Berkley: Berkley Program in Law and Economics. Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. University of California eScholarship[online]. Jan. 2005. Available from: eScholarship. University of California About the New eScholarship.
8a. Buscaglia, Edgardo. (1999). Judicial Corruption in Developing Countries: Its Causes and Economic Consequences. University of California eScholarship[online]. 1999. Available from: eScholarship.
8b. Garoupa, Nuno; Cooter, Robert. The Virtuous Circle of Distrust: A Mechanism to Deter Bribes And Other Cooperative Crimes. University of Califorinia eScholarship[online]. 2000. Available from: eScholarship.
8c. Lanza, Steven P. The Economics of Ethics: The Cost of Political Corruption. University of Connecticut [online]. 2004. Available from: Article
8d. United States Department of Justice. Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of the Public Integrity Section for 2009. Office of Public Integrity [online]. 2009. Available from: Report.
8e. Ermakova, Maria; Spillane, Chris. Corruption Rises Over 3 Years, More People Paid Bribes. Bloomberg[online]. 2010. Available from: Article.
9. Harding, Chris. Please take about 30 seconds and sign this petition for Mr. Gayl, a man who saved our troops! Gather[online]. 2010. Available from: Chris Harding's Gather Network. Article.
10. Marshall, Clinard B.; Yeager, Peter C. Corporate Crime. Transaction Publishers[online]. 2006. Available from: Google Books. ISBN: 1-4128-0493-0.
11. Kesselheim, Aaron S., MD, JD, MPH; Studdert, David M., LL.B., Sc.D., MPH; Mello, Michelle M., JD, PhD, M.Phil. Whistle-Blowers' Experiences in Fraud Litigation against Pharmaceutical Companies. The New England Journal of Medicine[online]. 2010. vol. 362, pp. 1832-1839. Available from: New England Journal of Medicine: Article.
12. Harding, Chris. Should an honest whistleblower be forced homeless? Many, including pharmaceutical whistleblowers, are forced homeless. Gather[online]. 2010. Available from: Chris Harding's Gather Network Article.
13. Holosonics. Weird Connections: Audio Spotlight. Holosonics.com[online]. 2010. Available from: Focused Loudspeaker Technology: Imagine the worse criminal on the face of the earth reverse engineering this device and speaking to your loved one. Remember, even BTK was a church deacon and "pillar" in society.
15. When Does a Worker's Death Become Murder?
â€¢ Rosner, David, PhD. Am J Public Health. When Does a Worker's Death Become Murder?. American Journal of Public Health[online]. 2000. vol. 90. pp. 535-540. Available from: Am J Public Health. American Journal of Public Health: Search. Search: Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine.
16. A New York Times article on negligence, OHSA, and workers death:
â€¢ Barstow, David. The New York Times. Times Topics. David Barstow. New York Times [online]. 2010. Available from: New York Times, Topics People.
â€¢ Barstow, David. The New York Times. National. U.S. Rarely Seeks Charges for Deaths in Workplace. New York Times[online]. 2003. Available from: Article.
17. A "loop hole" in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing:
â€¢ United States Food and Drug Administration, "FDA". Compliance Policy Guide. Compliance Policy Guidance for FDA Staff and Industry. Pharmacy Compounding, Chapter 4, Subchapter 460. FDA[online]. 2010. Available from: Section 460.200, Pharmacy Compounding. Search FDA: US FDA.
18. Drugs. 2006 Limited FDA Survey of Compounded Drug Products; Includes description of quality problems and female hormone products, inhalation products, and local anesthetic products were sampled and evaluated:
â€¢ United States Food and Drug Administration, "FDA". Drugs. 2006 Limited FDA Survey of Compounded Drug Products. FDA[online]. 2010. Available from: Guidance, Compliance & Regulatory Information, Pharmacy Compounding. Search FDA: US FDA.
19. Bochenek, Michael; Brown, Widney, A.; Breen, Melanie; Campbell, Rook; David, Sam; Henkle, Derek R.; Jesrani, Tejal; Lnzertti,Rachel; McArthur, Kerry; Rozario, Shalu; Zea, Sadie. Hatred in the Hallways, Violence and Discrmination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bsexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools. Human Rights Watch [online].2001. Available from: HRW, Database.
20. Elsea, Jennifer K., Legislative Attorney. Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information. US State Department[online]. 2010. Available from: Document.
21. Whelan, David. Abbott Stenting scandal sounds like Tenet all over again. Forbes[online]. 2010. Available from: Article, Forbes.
22. Hancock, Jay. Threat betrays big medicine's profit obsession. Baltimore Sun[online]. 2010. Available from: Article, Baltimore Sun.
23. Jean-Pierre, Kariane. White House Staff: It Gets Better. Whitehouse[online]. 2010. Available from: Whitehouse, Article
24. BullyingInfo.org. Home.Youth Topics. Bullying Prevention and Response. FindYouthInfo[online]. 2010. Article
"...And Then There was the Down Low": Introduction to Black and Latino Bisexualities"
25. Sandfort, Theo G.M; Dodge, Brian. ...And Then There was the Down Low": Introduction to Black and Latino Male Bisexualities. Arch Sex Behav[online].2008.vol.37(5), pp.675-682. Available from: Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine. Search Entrez.
"Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not divided into sheep and goats. Not all things are black nor all things white. It is a fundamental of human taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories. Only the human mind invents categories and tries to force facts into separated pigeon-holes. The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex. (p. 639)"-Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948
26. Wiener-Bronner, Danielle. Rutgers Student Believed To Have Committed Suicide After Classmates Allegedly Recorded Him In Gay Sexual Encounter. The Huffington Post [online]. 2010. Available from: Article
In addition to My Gather Network: Quidnunc Simcha, I am a Guest-Editor and "Conversation Starter" at Conversations for a Better World, Chris Harding, which is a shared blog on population, gender and health, and provided by United Nations Population Fund Website.
Conversations for a Better World
You should consider contribution to Conversations for a Better World as well! The more diverse the discussions the better the results in most instances. Although time to a solution will increase significantly, the final result is usually better for humanity.